GLOSSARY OF GARMENT TECHNOLOGY
4-Needle Stitched- Double-Needle stitched but with four stitches.
2-Way Zipper- A zipper with two zipper pulls so that it can be unzipped from either direction.
1x1 Rib- Also 2x2 rib knit trim. The width of each rib is the same as the width between each rib. This helps the garment retain its elasticity.
All-Weather Microfiber- 100% Polyester Microfiber with waterproof coating and fully taped seams. 100% waterproof.
Allen Solley Placket- A one piece placket that is hidden after sewing. The process utilizes the existing fabric for the outside placket face.
Antimicrobial- finishing process which protects against odor-causing bacteria.
Anti-Pill- A treatment applied to garments primarily to resist the formation of little balls on the fabric’s surface due to abrasion during wear.
Argyle- Typically a diamond pattern woven into a garment.
Baby Pique- Very small pique knit. (See Pique Knit).
Back Pleats- Tiny folds in the material on the back of a garment that allow for more room and comfort.
Back Yoke- A piece of fabric that connects the back of a garment to the shoulders. This allows the garment to lay flat and drape nicely.
Backing Yarn- The yarn which is napped on the inside of a fleece garment, that creates the soft lining of fleece.
Banded Cuffs- A piece of single-ply material, usually ribbed, which is added to the sleeve ends to form a cuff.
Bartacked- Reinforced stitching, i.e. rivets used in reinforcing pockets on jeans.
Basket Weave Knit- process of weaving yarns back and forth resulting in a two-tone appearance.
Bias- fabric which has been cut on the diagonal.
Binding- A sewing method that encases an edge or seam with fabric.
Biopolished- finishing process by adding any enzyme to provide sheen and lend a soft, silky hand.
Birdseye Jacquard- A small geometric pattern with a center dot knit into the fabric.
Blanket Stitch- A decorative stitch used to finish an unhemmed blanket. The stitch can be seen on both sides of the blanket.
Boc- Specialized knitting technology created to enhance garment breathability and bi-modular stretch.
Bonded Fleece- Fleece produced with multiple layers that are bonded together creating a thicker and heavier weight garment.
Box Pleat- A single, uniform fold in the center back of a garment to allow for more room and comfort.
Brushed Cotton- Cotton fabric that is brushed to remove all the excess lint and fibers from the fabric, leaving an ultra soft, smooth finish.
Button-Through Sleeve Placket- A small placket located on the sleeve, by the cuff, which contains a single button closure.
Cami-Strap- Very narrow shoulder straps.
Camp Shirt- a men’s shirt with an open collar and patch pockets, typically meant to be worn un-tucked.
Carding- A fiber cleaning process in yarn spinning.
Carefree- Expect an easy care, machine washable fabric.
Casual Microfiber- 100% Polyester Microfiber fabric that is water repellent and wind resistant.
Cavalry Twill- A type of Twill Weave (Pattern of the Twill).
Certified Organic- Textiles that are certified organic are made from raw organic materials that originate from organic cultivation, processed using sustainable textile production methods where 100% certified organic natural fibers come from inspected, toxic free organic farming in compliance with regulations for organic production.
Chambray- A dressier fabric woven with white threads across colored threads.
Classic Fit- a traditional missy cut that is tailored, but not form fitting.
Coil Zipper- a continuous piece that has been formed into a coil shape and sewn into a piece of fabric webbing.
Collarette- The trim around the neck of a t-shirt or sweatshirt.
Combed Cotton- Cotton yarn that has been combed to remove short fibers and straighten or arrange longer fibers in parallel order resulting in a smooth yarn used in finer garments. A secondary cleansing process performed to remove additional impurities from the staple fiber after carding.
Compaction- A shrinkage control technique used in fabric manufacturing.
Cool Mesh- Similar to a pique knit but with a more open texture for increased breathability. Features a soft hand for better comfort.
Cool Weave- Similar to a pique knit, but with a more open texture for increased breathability. Slightly larger knit than Cool Mesh, it has a denser feel.
Cord Locks- A stopper or toggle on a drawcord that keeps the cord from retracting into the garment.
Course- Loops of horizontal knit fabric.
Coverseamed- A finish in which two needles are used to create parallel rows of visible stitching. It is used around the neck, armholes, waistband, and wrists of garments to create a cleaner, more durable finish.
Crew Neck- a round collarless neck.
Cut- The number of needles utilized per inch when knitting fabric.
Decorative Stitching- stitching/embroidery which serves no purpose except to enhance the items' appeal and surface interest.
Denier- A density of the weave in a nylon or polyester product.
Dobby- A decorative weave, usually geometric, that is woven into the fabric.
Double Knit- A fabric knitted on a circular machine by interlocking loops with a double stitch (2 sets of needles) to form a ribbed cloth with a twice-knitted appearance.
Double-Needle Stitched- A finish used on a sleeve and/or bottom hem that uses two needles to create parallel rows of visible stitching. It gives the garment a cleaner, more finished look and adds durability.
Double Pleated Back Yoke- The back piece of a garment which contains two individual pleats that provide more room and comfort.
Dry-Fiber- A high activity sportswear fabric that absorbs, wicks and dries faster than average golf wear.
Drop Needle- A knit fabric characterized by vertical lines within the cloth. Manufactured by “dropping” a needle from the knitting cylinder.
Drop Tail- A design feature where the back of the garment is longer then the front.
Duck Cloth- Tightly woven fabric that provides wind and snag resistance.
Durable Press (DP) Rating- a rating given to the fabric of a garment to describe it's wrinkle resistance. 3.0 is considered to be "wrinkle resistant". 3.5+ is considered to be "wrinkle free".
Dyed-To-Match- Buttons or trims that are the same color as the garment onto which they are sewn.
EcoSpun- A fleece outerwear fabric made from at least 50% materials reclaimed from recycled plastic soda pop bottles.
End-on-End- A 2-ply weave of different color yarns that run parallel against each other so that both colors are visible.
Enzyme Washed- A laundering process in which a catalytic substance is added to create a chemical change in the fabric resulting in a very soft finish, smoother appearing surface and reduced shrinkage.
Etched Tone Buttons- A more upscale horn tone button with an etched pattern.
Extended Tail- When the back portion of the garment is longer than the front. Assists in keeping the garment tucked in during normal activity.
Eyelets- Small holes or perforations made in a series to allow for breathability. Finished with either stitching or brass grommets.
Face Yarn- The exterior yarn of a fleece garment.
Felled Seam- Seam made by turning under or folding together and stitching the seamed materials to avoid rough edges.
Fine Gauge Knit- Refined in texture and drape "Fine" refers to the diameter of the yarns or stitches.
Flash- A flashing process is necessary when screen printing a light ink color over a dark fabric. A layer of White must be layed down first and "flashed" or dried before laying down additional coats of ink.
Fleece- A multi-yarn fabric identified by a soft napped interior and a smooth exterior.
Full Cut- Refers to a garment's fit as being generous and roomy.
Garment Washed- A wash process where softeners are added to finished garments to help the cotton fibers relax or bloom. The result is a fabric with a thicker appearance, reduced shrinkage and a softer hand.
Garment Dyed- A dyeing process that occurs after the garment is assembled.
Hand- Quality or characteristic of fabrics that are perceived by the sense of touch; e.g. firmness, softness, fineness, drape.
Henley- A knit shirt with a button placket at the neckline, no collar. Copied from a shirt originally worn by rowers at Henley, England.
Herringbone- A chevron or zig-zag pattern, knit into fabric alternating direction row by row.
High Profile- A cap style with a high slope structured with buckram–a stiff fabric lining. Less fitted to the head.
Horn Tone Buttons- Buttons that appear to be manufactured from horn.
Houndstooth- A medium sized broken check effect that is knit into the fabric.
Inset/Set-In Placket- A placket that is constructed from a separate piece of fabric and sewn in separately. This placket is visible after it is sewn into the garment.
Interlock Knit- A fabric that has two plys knit simultaneously to form one thicker and heavier ply. It has more natural stretch than a jersey knit, a soft hand, and the same appearance and feel on both sides.
Iridescent Buttons- Buttons with a lustrous, rainbow-like hue.
Jacquard Knit- A pattern knit directly into the fabric during the manufacturing process. Typically, 2 or more colors are used. Woven jacquard fabrics include brocade, damask and tapestry. In knits, jacquard is typically a jersey fabric with a different and more complex needle selection.
Jersey Knit- This fabric has a definite smooth side, (the outside", and a textured side, (the inside) - commonly found in t-shirts.
Knit Fabric- Fabric made by intertwining yarn or thread in a series of connected loops.
Lamborder- A flat rib knit, with specified dimensions, that is used to function as a placket and placket facing.
Locker Loop- A looped piece of fabric in the neck of a garment for the convenience of hanging the garment on a hook. Can also be located at the center of the back yoke on the inside or outside of a garment.
Locker Patch- A semi-oval panel sewn into the inside back portion of a garment, just under the collar seam, to reinforce the garment and minimize stretching when hung on a hook. The patch also allows for the garment tag or label to be sewn below the neckline to help prevent irritation.
Low Profile- A cap style with a low slope that is more closely fitted to the head. Can be either structured or unstructured.
Matte Taslan- See Taslan but with a dull finish.
Melange- A mix of different colors of yarns knit together to create a heathered effect.
Mercerized- A product that has gone through a process to produce a smooth, lustrous hand and lustrous appearance.
Mesh- Similar to a pique knit, but with a more open texture for increased breathability. Larger knit than Cool Weave.
Micro Fleece- A high density, anti-pilling fleece made of knit micro-fibers that are brushed less than a regular fleece garment. It has a high capacity for warmth without the weight.
Microfiber- This fabric is tightly woven from a very fine poly thread and has a sueded finish for a luxurious, soft feel. Microfiber fabric is naturally water repellent due to its construction process and when specially treated, can also be waterproof.
Micro Cord- A very fine wale cord.
Micro-Stripe- An ultra-fine stripe that is knit into the fabric.
Mid Profile- A cap with a slope height in between that of a High Profile and Low Profile. It is most often structured with buckram.
Mini-grid- Small square pattern created by yarn dyed thread.
Mother of Pearl Logo Buttons- Buttons made from Mother of Pearl, with a logo inscribed on them.
Nap- The soft or fuzzy surface of fleece achieved by shredding the backing yarn.
Nail Head Design- A jacquard knitting pattern in which the jacquard forms a design similar to small nail heads.
Needle out- term which refers to the pattern made when a stitching needle is removed from the knitting process.
Non-iron- finish allows garment to stay smooth and crisp without ironing throughout the day. Collars and cuffs stay flat and flawless.
Nublend™- The combination of a knitting and spinning process developed by JERZEES® for their blended fleece that helps prevent pilling.
Ombre- A graduated or shaded effect of color or texture used in a stripe motif.
Open-End Spinning- A technique to create yarn using a combing roll and rotor.
Open Collar- A type of collar that does not button down.
Optical Brightener- A fabric brightening additive.
Ottoman Knit- Also known as "cool knit" or "cool weave". This fabric has a small box-like pattern and certain wicking properties to keep moisture away from the skin.
Ounces Per Sq. Yd.- A measurement of fabric weight.
Overdyed- A process in which yarn dyed fabrics or piece dyed garments are put through an additional dye color to create unique colors.
Oxford- A type of fabric where the fibers are either cotton or blended man-made fibers.
Patch Pocket- A pocket attached to the outside of a garment.
Pearlized Buttons- Buttons that have a pearl-colored hue.
Pewter Buttons- Buttons that have a dull, metallic hue.
Pewter and Horn Tone Buttons- Buttons that incorporate pewter and horn tone, usually one encompasses the other.
Pigment Dyed- A type of dye used to create a distressed or washed look.
Pill Free® - A process developed by Lee® to help prevent pilling on fleece garments.
Pima- Peruvian pima cotton is one of the world's finest natural fibers grown and harvested in the foothills of the Andes. It is prized for it's extraordinary softness and durability.
Pinpoint Oxford- A lightweight, soft, cotton-like fabric with small, 2x1 basket (rib) weave repeats. It is of high quality, with a very smooth surface often used for shirts.
Piping- A narrow piece of fabric sewn between two pieces for fabric or decorative purposes.
Pique Knit- A knitting method that creates a fine textured surface that appears similar to a birds nest, waffle weave or honeycomb. It offers an open knit surface with a coarser hand than jersey or interlock and used primarily in short-sleeve knit polo shirts. (b.) A tightly knit fabric with a rough or raised surface - typically found in higher quality sport or golf shirts.
Placket- The part of a shirt or jacket where the garment fastens or buttons together.
Ply yarn- A yarn formed by twisting together one or more single yarns or strands in one single operation.
Pointelle- A decorative stitch which is knitted or woven into the fabric.
Polyester- A wrinkle resistant fabric of man-made filament fibers.
Poly-filled- A warm polyester lining found in the body or sleeves of outerwear garments. It has more loft than a regular nylon lining.
Polynosic- Features similar characteristics to cotton and silk, has excellent luster and very little shrinkage.
Popcorn Pique- Alternating rows of 2 different pique knits; one knit is a baby pique, while the other is a larger pique that resembles small circles knit closely together.
Poplin- A tightly woven, durable, medium weight cotton or cotton blend fabric made using a rib variation of the plain weave which creates a slight ridge effect.
Pre-Shrunk- This term refers to a manufacturing process whereby the fabric is compressed before a garment is sewn from it. The fabric decompresses during washing, compensating for any natural shrinkage. "Pre-shrunk" does NOT mean "Pre-washed".
Print Pro™ - A knitting process developed by Hanes® for their fleece garments that creates a tighter knit for a better printing surface.
Princess Darts- A tapered tuck sewn from the bottom hem to the arm hole to adjust the fit of a garment.
Princess Seam Detailing- Seams found in the front or back of a garment that create a tailored silhouette.
PVC- A polyurethane coating that is added to make garments water resistant.
Raglan Sleeves- A type of sleeve sewn in with seams slanting outward from neck to underarm. The sleeve continues in one piece to the collar so there are no seams at the shoulder allowing for ease of movement.
Rapid Dry- A fabric designed with a unique weave to wick away moisture from the body.
Reactive Dyes- Dyestuffs that form chemical bonds with cotton fibers.
Reinforced Placket- Stitching in the shape of a rectangle at the bottom of a placket, for reinforcement.
Resort Cuff- Also known in the industry as a "logo cuff", describes a cuff that has a small blank space in the pattern to provide a spot for embroidering.
Reverse Placket- See Placket, but reversed for women’s garments.
Rib Knit- A textured knit that has the appearance of vertical lines. It is highly elastic and retains "memory".
Ring Spun Yarn- Yarn made by continuously twisting and thinning a rope of cotton fibers. The twisting makes the short hairs of cotton stand out, resulting in a stronger yarn with a significantly softer hand. Found in more expensive polos and tees.
Ringer- A t-shirt with collar and sleeve cuffs of a different color than the body of the shirt.
R-Tek™ Fleece- 100% polyester fleece with an anti-pill finish which prevents the formation of little balls on the surface of the fabric.
Running Stitch- A stitch that is spaced equally, with the underside stitching being half the length of the external side.
Sandwashed- A washing process in which the fabric is washed with very fine lava rocks or rubber/silicon balls resulting in a softer fabric with a relaxed look and reduced shrinkage.
Sculpted Hem- A hem that is softly rounded for fashion detail.
Seamless Collar- A collar that is knit in a circle and set circular. There are no "joining" seams on the collar.
Self-Fabric Collar- A collar that is constructed from the same material as the body of the garment.
Self-Fabric Sweatband- Refers to headwear where the sweatband is constructed with the same fabric as the crown.
Serge Stitch- An overcasting technique done on the cut edge of the fabric to prevent unraveling.
Shirttail- A scoop in the front and/or back of a shirt that is longer than the sides.
Side Vents- Slits found at the bottom of side seams. They are fashion details that allow for comfort and ease of movement.
Silk- Known for being one of the finest textiles because it is strong, soft, absorbent, and has a brilliant sheen. It is the only natural fiber to come in a filament form from a silk worm.
Singles- A term used to indicate the diameter of a yarn; the smaller the number, the thicker the yarn. Usually expressed as "16/1" or "18/1".
Single Needle- Single row of stitching at seam, see "Top Stitching". Provides a more comfortable seam for the wearer.
Sport silk- Name given to modal rayon/polyester fabrication to exemplify its wash and wear capabilities.
Slash Pockets- A pocket that has to be entered through a slash on the outside of the garment. The pocket pouch is suspended from and attached to the slash.
Stonewashed- A washing process in which the fabric or garment is heavily washed with lava rocks or rubber/silicon balls. The result is a softer fabric with a distressed or weathered look and reduced shrinkage.
Storm Flap- A strip of fabric sewn under or over the front zip or snap closure of an outerwear garment to protect against wind and moisture.
Structured- A cap style with a lined front consisting of buckram, a stiff fabric, that controls the slope of the cap.
Sueded Cotton- A fabric that goes through a brushing process to raise the nap and give the garment a soft hand.
Sueded Nylon- (See Sueded Cotton).
Tailored Fit- A more form-fitting style
Taped Seams- A strip of fabric sewn to the seam of a garment to prevent distortion. In outerwear, taped seams aid in waterproofing. increased comfort and durability for the wearer.
Taslan- Refers to how the fibers are woven and the resulting texture. Used mainly in outerwear garments, Taslan is a durable and water repellent nylon fabric with a slightly shiny surface.
Teklon- A rugged, stronger Taslan nylon that is water repellent.
Tencel- A fabric made from the cellulose found in wood pulp which is processed into a silk-like, delicate fabric.
Terra-Tek™ - A durable and water repellent Taslan with a matte finish.
Terry Velour- A type of material with uncut loops on both sides. It has a soft, plush feel and is water absorbent - typically found in better quality towels and robes.
Three-End Fleece- Face, tie-in and backing yarns combined to form a fleece fabric.
Tipping- The embellishment of a garment by adding some type of trim to the edges of cuffs, plackets, pockets or hems for decoration.
T-weave dobby- A type of woven fabric that contains a simple t-shape pattern which is created in the weaving process.
Tricot Lining- A very lightweight nylon lining most often used in shorts.
Triple-Needle Stitched- See Double-Needle Stitched but with 3 stitches.
Tone on Tone Jacquard Collar- See Jacquard Knit. The two colors being used are the same.
Top Stitching- A design feature, both decorative and functional, that is an additional means of securing fabric plies whereby the original seam is folded under and sewn down.
Tubular Collar- Collar which is knit in a tube form so it has no seams.
Tuck-In Tails- A shirt constructed so the back hem is longer than the front. This aids in keeping the shirt tucked-in during strenuous activities.
Tuck Stitch- Refers to the look of the knit where some stitches are actually under the other stitches. Gives the shirt a waffle-weave type texture and look.
Twill- A fabric characterized by micro diagonal ribs producing a strong, durable, firm fabric.
Twill Tape Placket Lining- Twill tape is attached to the inside of the placket for a fashion effect.
Underarm Grommets- Small holes in the armpit area to allow breathability and air circulation.
Unstructured- A low profile cap style with a natural low sloping crown. No buckram has been added to the crown.
V Patch- A section of material in a V shape that is sewn onto a garment directly under the collarette. Can provide support against stretching the neck opening and is also a style component.
Vents, Front & Back- Allow for breathability and may aid in ease of decoration, allowing the garment to be hooped and embroidered with no show-through on the inside of the garment. Some vents are tacked down and are for fashion purposes only.
Vertical Princess Pleats- Vertical seams, rising from the hem, which are found in the front or back of a garment that create a tailored silhouette.
W - Z
Waffle Weave/Knit- A waffle, or square pattern, knit or woven into a garment.
Washer Nylon- A nylon garment treated with a special finish to produce a crinkled effect.
Waterproof- The ability to prevent the penetration of water.
Water Resistant- Possessing the ability to resist wetting and the penetration of water.
Weathered Twill- A special dye process resulting in a softer fabric with a weathered appearance that will continue to enhance with each wash.
Welt Collar and/or Cuffs- A single ply fabric with a finished edge that is used for 2-ply collars and cuffs on sport shirts and short sleeve garments.
Windowpane- A large bar-like design resembling window panes.
Wood Tone Buttons- Buttons that simulate a wood appearance.
Wrinkle free- A finish which permanently presses a garment that can be applied before or after the garment is produced.
Yarn Dyed- Yarn that has been dyed prior to the weaving or knitting of the garment.
Yarn Size- A gauge of yarn weight
Apparel 2013 Index
home | sitemap | contact us by e-mail | about us | help | apparel index | in-transit delivery time | shipping charges
apparel terms and conditions | conditions of use | privacy statement | glossary of terms for apparel